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Our team Our team is made up of lawyers, professors, professors, inspectors on leave and other lawyers of recognized prestige, which guarantees excellence in services. Global advice and coverage With our own offices in Madrid and Barcelona, we are founding partners of ELLINT - Employment Labor Lawyer International - network of labor offices with presence in 12 countries and more than lawyers, which allows us to advise and accompany you in your international operations.
Olga Rico Santiago. Mateu Torres. The absence of an industrial sector that could absorb displaced agricultural workers and artisans led to the proliferation of services with rather low productivity. This unequal development compared to other regions led to a hypertrophied and unproductive service sector, which has tended to reinforce underdevelopment, because it has not led to large accumulations of capital.
Due in part to the relatively mild winter and spring climate, the south of Spain is attractive to overseas visitors—especially tourists from Northern Europe. Among the autonomous communities, Andalusia is second only to Catalonia in tourism, with nearly 30 million visitors every year. The principal tourist destinations in Andalusia are the Costa del Sol and secondarily the Sierra Nevada. As discussed above , Andalusia is one of the sunniest and warmest places in Europe, making it a center of "sun and sand" tourism.
The largest number of tourists come in August— In , the Blue Flag beach program of the non-profit Foundation for Environmental Education recognized 66 Andalusian beaches and 18 pleasure craft ports as being in a good state of conservation in terms of sustainability, accessibility, and quality.
However, Hotel chains such as Fuerte Hotels have ensured that sustainability within the tourism industry is one of their highest priorities. Together with "sand and sun" tourism, there has also been a strong increase in nature tourism in the interior, as well as cultural tourism , sport tourism, and conventions [ citation needed ].
One example of sport and nature tourism is the ski resort at Sierra Nevada National Park. Each of the provinces shows a great variety of architectural styles: Islamic architecture , Renaissance architecture , Baroque architecture and more modern styles. There are numerous other significant museums around the region, both of paintings and of archeological artifacts such as gold jewelry, pottery and other ceramics, and other works that demonstrate the region's artisanal traditions.
The unemployment rate stood at As in any modern society, transport systems are an essential structural element of the functioning of Andalusia. The transportation network facilitates territorial coordination, economic development and distribution, and intercity transportation. In urban transport, underdeveloped public transport systems put pedestrian traffic and other non-motorized traffic are at a disadvantage compared to the use of private vehicles. For over a century, the conventional rail network has been centralized on the regional capital, Seville, and the national capital, Madrid; in general, there are no direct connections between provincial capitals.
Further AVE routes are under construction. Algeciras is Spain's leading commercial port, with 60,, tonnes 66,, short tons of cargo in The lack of high-quality fossil fuels in Andalusia has led to a strong dependency on petroleum imports. Still, Andalusia has a strong potential for the development of renewable energy , above all wind energy. The Andalusian Energy Agency established in by the autonomous government, is a new governmental organ charged with the development of energy policy and provision of a sufficient supply of energy for the community.
The infrastructure for production of electricity consists of eight large thermal power stations , more than 70 hydroelectric power plants, two wind farms , and 14 major cogeneration facilities.
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It is the largest existing solar power facility in Europe. Two more large thermosolar facilities, Andasol I y II , planned at Hoya de Guadix in the province of Granada are expected to supply electricity to half a million households. As throughout Spain, basic education in Andalusia is free and compulsory. Students are required to complete ten years of schooling, and may not leave school before the age of 16, after which students may continue on to a baccalaureate , to intermediate vocational education , to intermediate-level schooling in arts and design, to intermediate sports studies, or to the working world.
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Andalusia has a tradition of higher education dating back to the Middle Ages and the Madrasah of Granada , University of Baeza , and University of Osuna. As of , there are ten private or public universities in Andalucia. University studies are structured in cycles, awarding degrees based on ECTS credits in accord with the Bologna process , which the Andalusian universities are adopting in accord with the other universities of the European Higher Education Area. Responsibility for healthcare jurisdictions devolved from the Spanish government to Andalusia with the enactment of the Statute of Autonomy.
Thus, the Andalusian Health Service Servicio Andaluz de Salud currently manages almost all public health resources of the Community, with such exceptions as health resources for prisoners and members of the military, which remain under central administration. The Council of Innovation, Science and Business is the organ of the autonomous government responsible for universities, research, technological development, industry, and energy.
The Andalusian government deployed , Ubuntu desktop computers in their schools. Andalusia has international, national, regional, and local media organizations, which are active gathering and disseminating information as well as creating and disseminating entertainment.
Different newspapers are published for each Andalusian provincial capital, comarca , or important city. Often, the same newspaper organization publishes different local editions with much shared content, with different mastheads and different local coverage. There are also popular papers distributed without charge, again typically with local editions that share much of their content. No single Andalusian newspaper is distributed throughout the region, not even with local editions. Grupo Joly is based in Andalucia, backed by Andalusian capital, and publishes eight daily newspapers there.
The culture of Andalusia has been shaped by its particular history and geography, as well as its complex flows of population. Andalusia has been home to a succession of peoples and civilizations, many very different from one another, each impacting the settled inhabitants. All have affected Andalusian identity and culture, which was already delineated in the 19th century and diffused widely in the literary and pictorial genre of the costumbrismo andaluz. In the 19th century, Andalusian culture came to be widely viewed as the Spanish culture par excellence , in part thanks to the perceptions of romantic travellers.
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In the words of Ortega y Gasset :. Andalusia, which has never shown the swagger nor petulancy of particularism; that has never pretended to the status of a State apart, is, of all the Spanish regions, the one that possesses a culture most radically its own. Throughout the 19th century, Spain has submitted itself to the hegemonic influence of Andalusia.
The dominant ideas have an Andalusian accent. One paints Andalusia: a roof-terrace, some flowerpots, blue sky. One reads southern authors. One speaks at all times of the "land of the Most Holy Virgin Mary". The thief from the Sierra Morena and the smuggler are national heroes.
All Spain feels its existence justified by the honor of having on its flanks the Andalusian piece of the planet. Around , like so many other things, this changes. The North sits up. Since the Neolithic era, Andalusia has preserved important megaliths , such as the dolmens at the Cueva de Menga and the Dolmen de Viera , both at Antequera. The traditional architecture of Andalusia retains its Roman and Arab roots, with a marked Mediterranean character strongly conditioned by the climate. Traditional urban houses are constructed with shared walls to minimize exposure to high exterior temperatures.
Solid exterior walls are painted with lime to minimize the heating effects of the sun. In accord with the climate and tradition of each area, the roofs may be terraces or tiled in the Roman imbrex and tegula style. Other characteristic elements are decorative and functional wrought iron gratings , and the tiles known as azulejos. Landscaping—both for common private homes and homes on a more lavish scale—also carries on older traditions, with plants, flowers, and fountains, pools, and streams of water. Beyond these general elements, there are also specific local architectural styles, such as the flat roofs , roofed chimneys, and radically extended balconies of the Alpujarra , the cave dwellings of Guadix and of Granada's Sacromonte , or the traditional architecture of the Marquisate of Zenete.
The monumental architecture of the centuries immediately after the Reconquista often displayed an assertion of Christian hegemony through architecture that referenced non-Arab influences. Seville and its kingdom also figured prominently in this era, as is shown by the Casa consistorial de Sevilla , the Hospital de las Cinco Llagas or the Charterhouse of Jerez de la Frontera. Andalusia also preserves an important industrial patrimony related to various economic activities. Besides the architecture of the cities, there is also much outstanding rural architecture: houses, as well as ranch and farm buildings and dog houses.
The Sevillian school of sculpture dating from the 13th century onward and the Granadan school beginning toward the end of the 16th century both focused primarily on Christian religious subject matter, including many wooden altarpieces. Non-religious sculpture has also existed in Andalusia since antiquity. A fine example from the Renaissance era is the decoration of the Casa de Pilatos in Seville.
Nonetheless, non-religious sculpture played a relatively minor role until such 19th-century sculptors as Antonio Susillo. As in sculpture, there were Sevillian and the Granadan schools of painting. The Museum of Fine Arts of Seville and the Prado  contain numerous representative works of the Sevillian school of painting. A specific romantic genre known as costumbrismo andaluz depicts traditional and folkloric Andalusian subjects, such as bullfighting scenes, dogs, and scenes from Andalusia's history.
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Its most illustrious representative was Pablo Picasso , one of the most influential artists of the 20th century. The city has a Museum and Natal House Foundation , dedicated to the painter. Andalusia plays a significant role in the history of Spanish-language literature, however not all of the important literature associated with Andalusia was written in Spanish.
Before , there was the literature written in Andalusian Arabic. Ibn Quzman , of the 12th century, crafted poems in the colloquial Andalusian language. Also of this generation were the Quintero brothers , dramatists who faithfully captured Andalusian dialects and idiosyncrasies. Ballads, lullabies, street vendor's cries, nursery rhymes, and work songs are plentiful. The music of Andalusia includes traditional and contemporary music, folk and composed music, and ranges from flamenco to rock.
Conversely, certain metric, melodic and harmonic characteristics are considered Andalusian even when written or performed by musicians from elsewhere. Flamenco, perhaps the most characteristically Andalusian genre of music and dance, originated in the 18th century, but is based in earlier forms from the region. The influence of the traditional music and dance of the Romani people or Gypsies is particularly clear.